In the Illuminations Ibn Arabi develops a theory of the imagination and the imaginary world explained by Henry Corbin. .  I.e., as distinguished from the various historically accrued bodies of interpretation and application in various historical and cultural settings, which may or may not be in accord with that actual Source: hence the inherently creative and unavoidably subversive potential of Ibn ‘Arabî’s teachings in any particular historical setting, Islamic or otherwise. The relative profusion of translations, biographies and studies of Ibn ‘Arabî and his writings in recent years has created something of a fortunate dilemma for those readers, new to his work, who might want to explore the perspectives opened up by this anthology. Even his later honorific title, “the greatest Master” (al-Shaykh al-Akbar), does not really begin to suggest the full extent of those influences. The multifaceted verb translated here as “to be mindful of” God is from the central Qur’anic term taqwâ, which refers both to the spiritual condition of awe and reverence of God and to the inner and outer actions of piety and devotion flowing from that state. See, among others, the voluminous anthology of related texts from many key figures in the later Islamic humanities (though the subtitle might suggest something quite different) included in S. Murata’s The Tao of Islam: A Sourcebook on Gender Relationships in Islamic Thought (Albany, SUNY, 1992); the four-volume version of later Turkish commentaries on the Fusûs, translated as Ismail Hakki Bursevi’s translation of and commentary on Fusûs al-Hikam’ (Oxford, MIAS, 1986); and perhaps most fascinating, S. Murata’s recent far-reaching study of several Neo-Confucian Chinese Muslim thinkers profoundly influenced by Ibn ‘Arabî, Chinese Gleams of Sufi Light’(Albany, SUNY, 2000). In this anthology: chapters 130131, and 140-141 (“Towards Sainthood”, Chittick); in the French sections of the Sindbad edition: chapters 88, (IV, C. Chodkiewicz); and 161 (VI, Gril). tion of chapter 366 is translated in full in Ibn 'Arabī: The Meccan Revelations (NY, Pir Publications, 2002), section entitled "At the End of Time". The Meccan Revelations (Arabic: كِتَابُ الفُتُوحَاتِ المَكِّيَّة, romanized: Kitâb Al-Futūḥāt al-Makkiyya) is the major work of the philosopher and Sufi Ibn Arabi, written between 1203 and 1240. .  See a few key references discussed in the “Further Reading” section, and particularly the forthcoming Proceedings of the Kyoto Conference on Ibn ‘Arabî’s influences in Central and Southeast Asia and China held in January 2001. ): in that light, these final remarks apparently are alluding to the particularly metaphysical, universal character of the wisdom in question here. , The hypothesis of Ibn Arabi's influence on Dante comes from, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Meccan_Revelations&oldid=985226212, Wikipedia articles with TDVİA identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WorldCat-VIAF identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 24 October 2020, at 18:31. The Meccan Revelations book.  Major autobiographical sections of the khutba regarding Ibn ‘Arabî’s role as “Seal of the Muhammadan Saints” were translated by M. Vâlsan (originally in tudes Traditionnelles, 1953) and were reprinted under the title “l’Investiture du cheikh al-Akbar au centre suprme” in the volume l’Islam et la fonction de René Guénon (Paris, 1984), pp. This is an English translation of the first volume of Ibn Arabi's famous book of al-futuhat al-makkiyya. Thus chapter 558 (partly translated in this anthology) is an immense discussion of the influences and underlying realities of each of the ninety-nine divine Names.  This is the number of “divine Names” specifically enumerated in several famous hadith and reflected in the normal numbers of Islamic prayer beads; the possible connections of specific Names with each of the “Poles” discussed here are not explicit and have not yet been elucidated. Ibn ‘Arabi and his Interpreters I – Four overviews, description of the following: Except His Face: The Political and Aesthetic Dimensions of Ibn Arabi’s Legacy (PDF), Ibn Arabi and His Interpreters — Introduction:Historical Contexts and Contemporary Perspectives (overview of 28 articles and reviews in this collection), Ibn Arabi and His Interpreters — Grouping I:Overviews, “Ibn Arabi and His Interpreters”, JAOS article 1986 (PDF) | Part 1 | Part 2 | Part 3 | Part 1 (HTML), Ibn Arabi and His Interpreters — Grouping II:Influences in the Pre-Modern Islamic World (all the following 7 articles in one PDF), Theophany or “Pantheism” – The Importance of Balyani’s Risalat al-Ahadiya, The Continuing Relevance of Qaysari’s Thought: Divine Imagination and the Foundation of Natural Spirituality, Review: La destinée de l’homme selon Avicenne: Le retour à Dieu (maad) et l’imagination by Jean Michot, Review: Kitab al-inbah ‘ala Tariq Allah de ‘Abdallah Badr al-Habashi, Review: La Risala de Safi al-Din ibn Abi l-Mansur ibn Zafir, Review: Manjhan, Madhumalati: An Indian Sufi Romance, Review: Mirror of the Intellect: Essays on Traditional Science and Sacred Art, Ibn Arabi and His Interpreters — Grouping III:Later Muslim Critics and Polemics (all the following 4 articles in one PDF), An Arab “Machiavelli”? His major work on Sufism, Al-Futuhat al-Makkiyya (The Meccan revelations) is an extensive encyclopedia comprising 560 chapters. Sachiko Murata’s The Tao of Islam (also in “Further Readings”) further develops both the Qur’anic roots of this spiritual language and its many elaborations in the later Islamic humanities (poetry, philosophy and Sufi teaching), in a very fruitful comparison with the central themes of Taoist thought. One could readily apply to both of these remarkable works what Ibn ‘Arabî says of The Meccan Revelations and his ideal readers in his Introduction, quoted above: the “preparedness” such works require is not simply, or even essentially, academic. The Meccan Revelations is considered the most important book in Islamic mysticism. The essential guiding ideas are of course the same, but here they are expressed with a constant careful, vivid and enthralling attention to the “living” phenomenology and experiential roots – including, above all, a constant reference to the words and practices of Islamic revelation – underlying the typically ontological and metaphysical formulae of the Fusûs tradition.  But unprepared readers, with rare exceptions, should find the readings here (together with their notes) far more accessible than many other translations of Ibn ‘Arabî’s works. . In this anthology: chapters 6 (“Divine Names and Theophanies”, Chittick) and 73 (sections in “Divine Names and Theophanies”, and “Lesser and Greater Resurrection”, Morris); in the French sections of Sindbad edition: chapters 2 (Part VIII, Gril) and 73 (Part VI, Gril). Finally, and even more mysteriously, each chapter concludes with a long but highly enigmatic catalogue of the various spiritual gifts and insights that are “given” in connection with this divine encounter, often connected with particular details of the corresponding Sura. It is almost ironic that although this book until now is the most difficult to find it is considered easier to read than the Fusus al-Hikam which has been translated many times into the English language. 629 – 52, and 108 (1988), pp. However, readers at home in Spanish will now find a number of important recent translations by Pablo Beneito, Victor Palleja and others, a happy sign of increasing interest in this native son who (like his near-contemporary Moses de Leon) must surely be counted among the enduring contributors to world civilization and religious understanding. , The Illuminations are a classic of Sufism, theology and Islamic philosophy. History of The Khanqah SHAJRA SHARIF / DAILY AZKARS Al-Qasim Islamic Library The Great Spiritual Center "Mohra Sharif" (Holy Village; Mohra for "small village" and Sharif for "holy" or "noble") is an great spiritual center and home of the Naqshbandia, Mujaddadiya.Qasimiya sufi order, read more... Shajra Sharif Murids must read on daily basis highly recommended. Even Ibn ‘Arabî’s most skeptical biographers have been compelled to note the remarkable way subsequent history has come to confirm his self-conception of his destined role as the “Seal of Muhammadan Sainthood”,  whose voluminous writings – and more important, the underlying spiritual “Reality” that they are meant to reveal and convey – were specially intended to open up the inner spiritual meanings at the heart of all preceding prophetic revelations (and especially the Qur’an and hadith). Teaching Ibn ‘Arabî’s works for decades to a wide range of audiences, almost all without any serious background in Arabic or traditional Islamic learning, has amply confirmed the essential practical reality that Ibn ‘Arabî boldly and openly states in his own Introduction to this work: what really counts, in approaching and learning from these ‘Meccan Illuminations’ – as, no doubt, from their Qur’anic model and inspiration – is each reader’s singular aptitude and concentrated intention. Ibn Arabi is initiated into religious experience by a spiritual woman called Nizham, a young Iranian woman whose name means "Harmony". But then I realized that that would distract the person who is properly prepared and seeking an increase (in spiritual knowledge), who is receptive to the fragrant breaths of (divine) Bounty through the secrets of being. "The continuation of our acclaimed English translation of Les Iluminations de la Meque.  See Introduction, “Suggestions for Further Reading.”. Ibn al-Árabî started working on this book in Mecca in the year 598 AH / 1202 AD; thus from here it takes its name, where he received the immense knowledge that he had broadcasted in this huge book from a spirit he calls the ‘passing young’ (al-fatâ al-fâàt) whom he met at the Kaaba. This is the Introduction to The Meccan Revelations by Michel Chodkiewicz, William Chittick and James Morris, published in 2002 by Pir Publications Inc., New York. However, every reader should pay attention to one absolutely essential point: the notes to these translations – as indeed to any accurate and intelligible translation of Ibn ‘Arabî – are an integral and indispensable part of the translation. First, he constantly uses what might otherwise be taken as “normal” Arabic terms, particularly ones drawn from the Islamic scriptural background of the Qur’an and hadith (traditions related from the Prophet, in specifically technical, personal senses (often profoundly based in the etymological roots of the underlying Arabic) that were already unfamiliar, and sometimes intentionally provocative, even to his original readers. , The inspirations that gave rise to The Meccan Revelations – as its title suggests  – took place in the course of Ibn ‘Arabî’s first pilgrimage in 1202/598. One of the major aids to be hoped for from a completion of the critical edition would be the full identification of all the other shorter works which Ibn ‘Arabî either inserted and adapted as part of The Meccan Revelations, or in some cases may have been extracted and circulated as separate treatises at a later date (either by himself or later students). For this is the True Knowing and the Veridical Saying, and there is no goal beyond It. He then spent years traveling in Syria, Palestine, Iraq, and Turkey. The profusion and initial unfamiliarity of these symbolic languages for most modern readers is a serious obstacle to both the translation and the understanding of Ibn ‘Arabî’s work, especially since most accessible Western writing on Ibn ‘Arabî, until quite recently, has focused on the abstract ontological language and insights associated with his later Bezels of Wisdom. For if the properly prepared person persists in dhikr (‘remembering’ God) and spiritual retreat, emptying the place (of the heart) from thinking, and sitting like a poor beggar who has nothing at the doorstep of their Lord – then God will bestow upon them and give them some of that knowing of Him, of those divine secrets and supernal understandings, which He granted to His servant al-Khadir.  Later Islamic traditions of interpretation have, for various reasons, tended to emphasize the two corresponding symbol-sets of the “Muhammadan Reality” (in both its existential and scriptural dimensions) and the symbolism of the “Completely Human Being” (“Perfect Man,” etc. Most of the many selections from this chapter included in this anthology were drawn from Ibn ‘Arabî’s fascinating responses to Tirmidhi’s questionnaire. In general, much of Ibn ‘Arabî’s writing from that period only becomes comprehensible in light of his fuller descriptions and explanations scattered throughout the Futuhat. His most common and all-encompassing symbolic languages in both domains are also drawn from the Qur’an and hadith: i.e., the scriptural discussions and allusions to cosmology and cosmogenesis, including the complex theological language of the divine Names ; and the rich, psychologically acute and precise symbolism of eschatology, which is particularly well illustrated in the selections translated below. And a few years later, in 1233/632, Ibn ‘Arabî began a revision and expansion of the text, which he finished in 1238/636, shortly before his death; the complete autograph manuscript of that final version, preserved by his famous disciple Qûnawî, survives. For example, the first thirteen chapters develop in a variety of symbolic languages (especially through the symbolic meanings and scriptural correspondences of the letters of the Arabic alphabet) the cosmological “map” of creation and its mirroring in the noetic reality of the “Complete Human Being” (al-insân al-kâmil). Had īth ilhā: translating more freely, we could also read "from divine Communication". Austin’s book is still available, through the Ibn ‘Arabi Society, in the reprinted edition by Beshara Publishers, 1988. The first is Henry Corbin’s Creative Imagination in the Sufism of Ibn ‘Arabî;  the second is Michel Chodkiewicz’s An Ocean Without Shore: Ibn ‘Arabî, the Book and the Law (Albany, SUNY, 1993). But as for the credo of the quintessence of the elite concerning God, that is a matter beyond this one, which we have scattered throughout this book because most intellects, being veiled by their thoughts, fall short of perceiving it due to their lack of spiritual purification. Instead I have given it scattered throughout the chapters of this book, exhaustively and clearly explained – but in different places, as we’ve mentioned. The even more recent translations of Ibn ‘Arabî’s prayers by S. Hirtenstein and P. Beneito, The Seven Days of the Heart (Oxford, Anqa, 2001) suggest something of the profound spiritual and devotional practice underlying and always assumed in Ibn ‘Arabî’s writings; the translators’ introduction is especially helpful in that regard.  Ibn ‘Arabî’s close friends in Tunisia are presented there as key members of the spiritual hierarchy. Moreover, as is true throughout pre-modern Islamic culture and literatures, Ibn ‘Arabî’s actual use and understanding of those scriptural languages is inseparable from the elaborate corresponding terminologies of Islamic philosophy, science and theology, on the ontological side; and from the equally complex languages of Islamic ritual and devotional practices and the nascent Sufi tradition, on the side of spiritual realization. See all books authored by Ibn Arabi, including Music of a Distant Drum: Classical Arabic, Persian, Turkish and Hebrew Poems, and Journey to the Lord of Power: A Sufi Manual on Retreat, and more on ThriftBooks.com.  The realms of “being” or creation in question, as any reader of Ibn ‘Arabî will quickly discover, are infinitely more extensive than the “lower world” of the physical senses. How to Study the Futuhat: Ibn Arabi’s Own Advice, Hur Man Studerar Futuhat: Ibn Arabis Egna Råd (Swedish). Although the title of this section initially (and no doubt intentionally) evokes the usual second half of Islamic books of hadith and fiqh (normally following the purely individual “acts of devotion,” ‘ibâdât), which deals with all of the ethical dimensions of social life (marriage, inheritance, proper behavior, trade, etc. So those on whom God has bestowed the understanding of these things will recognize them and distinguish them from other matters. The seventy-eight chapters of this section are truly “Illuminations,” complex series of reflections and flashes of insight (“commentary” is far too pedestrian a term!) What lends it all its power and lasting importance is the way all the preceding “illuminations” will have radically transformed, for readers who have faithfully followed Ibn ‘Arabî up to this point, their inner awareness and appreciation of the actual, unimaginable complex of meanings, intentions and spiritual realizations which are in fact encapsulated and briefly expressed in each of those particular bits of spiritual advice. 3 Ibn Arabi – Fusus Al Hikam (The Seals Of Wisdom) – (p) 5 Ibn Arabi – Selections from Futuhat Makkiyya (Meccan. 3 Ibn Arabi – Fusus Al Hikam (The Seals Of Wisdom) – (p) 5 Ibn Arabi – Selections from Futuhat Makkiyya (Meccan. And the vast concluding chapter of “spiritual advice,” frequently copied and reprinted as a separate volume, brings together a host of selections of practical ethical and spiritual advice, drawn from scriptural sources, earlier prophets, Companions and saints, and other (not specifically religious) ethical writers.
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